Back in the 1800s a British-German astronomer named William Herschel told the world about infrared radiation. Then a few other guys like Josef Stefan and Ludwig Boltzmann figured out the energy exchange between two surfaces had a constant, which found its way into a now famous law called the Stefan-Boltzmann equation.ii A form of this formula can be used to calculate the net exchange of radiative heat (Qrad, Watts) between, for example, the roof of a building and the sky.

Formel 1
Qrad = εσA(∆T4)

ε = surface emissivity of the roof
A    = roof area, m²
σ = the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.6704 × 10 -8 W / m² ∙ K4)
ΔT = temperature differential between the sky and roof, K [Kelvin = ( TºC + 273,15)]

Temperatur: C°(Grad Celcius)
Emissivität(0-1) ε(Punkt für Komma)

Watt oder Qrad: Watt/

Space is very cold, and we can bring that cold down to Earth by increasing the heat reflectance of an object or an entire region. This can happen through pyramid-like nanostructures or through the smallest glass beads, water droplets or underwater bubbles.